영문법 - 영어의 5가지 문장 형식

4형식

주어 + 동사(수여동사) + 간접목적어 + 직접목적어

They gave me money. 

수여동사

일반적어로 타동사는 목적어를 1개 가지지만 "~에게 ~해 주다" 말투는 목적어를 두개 가질 수 밖에 없는데 이러한 동사를 수요동사(35개 정도)라고 합니다.

수여동사의 종류

수여동사는 받는 누군가를 필요로합니다.
동사 안에 "~에게"라는 뜻을 내포하고 있으므로 전치사를 사용하지 않습니다.
run to me(O) / send to me(X) → send안에 "~에게"라는 뜻을 가지고 있으므로 send me라고 해야 합니다.

  • give : ~에게 ~을 주다
  • offer : ~에게 ~을 제공해주다
  • promise : ~에게 ~을 약속해주다.
  • send : ~에게 ~을 보내주다.

4형식과 3형식

(3형식)타동사 + 직접목적어 + 전치사 + 간접 목적어 ↔ (4형식) 타동사 + 간접 목적어 + 직접 목적어

  • They give money to me ↔ They give me money.
  • They offer free dinner to the people ↔ They offer people free dinner.
  • They promise a help to us ↔ They promise us a help.

영어에서 목적어 3가지

직접 목적어, 간접 목적어, 전치사의 목적어

강조의 표현

 영어는 항상 사람을 강조합니다. 그럼에도 불구하고 They give me money. 가 아니라 They give money to me라고 썼다면 money를 강조한 것입니다.

목적어의 자리를 서로 바꿀 수 없는 2가지 경우

  • 물건 보다는 사람에게 더 관심이 있는 단어들
    envy, save, cost, forgive, pardon, spare, grudge
  • 대명사가 문장 안에 직접 목적어로 쓰였을 경우
    He sent me it (X) → He sent it to me (O)

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